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Mengembangkan ToC: Studi Kasus Proyek Lingkungan

Okt 8, 2020 | by Fajri

Di blog kami sebelumnya, kami membahas bagaimana ‘Teori Perubahan’ dapat dirumuskan dan diterapkan pada proyek berdampak dan langkah-langkah penting apa yang perlu diingat. Blog ini akan memberikan contoh untuk membuat konsep lebih jelas, tetapi sebelum kita melanjutkan, berikut adalah ringkasan singkat dari garis besar pengembangan ToC. Definisi ToC Lingkungan PBB merangkumnya dengan tepat:

“Teori Perubahan dari suatu intervensi menggambarkan jalur kausal dari output melalui outcome melalui keadaan antara menuju dampak. Teori Perubahan lebih jauh mendefinisikan faktor eksternal yang mempengaruhi perubahan sepanjang jalur utama yaitu faktor yang mempengaruhi apakah satu hasil dapat mengarah ke hasil berikutnya. . Faktor-faktor yang berkontribusi ini disebut pendorong dan asumsi. Pendekatan ini memiliki manfaat untuk memasukkan logika intervensi yang dimaksudkan ke dalam konteks implementasinya. “

Tanyakan pada diri kamu sendiri beberapa pertanyaan sebelum memulai:

  • Apa tujuan atau hasil jangka panjang yang ingin dicapai proyek kamu?
  • Kondisi apa yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai tujuan?

Then comes the process of ‘backward mapping’, identifying interventions and developing indicators. 

Tip: Always remember, while ToC should be developed before the initiation of the project, you must review it periodically as the project evolves.

In this blog post, we shall discuss an example of ToC for an environmental project. We’ll bring back the same example used in our blog series on SROI analysis. 

Under ‘West Java Redevelopment Project’, the NGO plans to increase the green cover in and around the area. In this case, the desired impact would be ‘increased green cover‘—it is from here that we’ll begin working our way backwards to resources and inputs that will be required for the project to achieve the desired result. 

Next comes setting up preconditions that need to exist to achieve the goal. Here, the NGO zeroes down on three broad preconditions to ensure ‘increased green cover’ in West Java. 

1) Implementing ‘green’ strategy in existing residential societies/hospitals/schools 

2) Greener public areas

3) Planting at least 100 saplings 

Now you will begin identifying pathways (outcomes pathways) that would lead to the ultimate goal, outlining the flow between shorter-term, intermediate and longer-term outcomes. Remember, all these are connected by links. Don’t forget to provide assumptions for the preconditions you set.

In this blog post, we shall discuss an example of ToC for an environmental project. We'll bring back the same example used in our blog series on SROI analysis. 

In this case, the preconditions for the above-mentioned assumptions are the following:

For the first precondition, the assumption established that residential societies, hospitals, schools usually have some unused space that can be effectively managed to introduce some green cover. It beautifies the premises and also adds to the greenery of the area. The same assumption was held true for public areas. 

Setting up a target for sapling plantation will help quantify the goal.

In the next step, the NGO will decide upon the interventions or the activities that it plans to take up to increase West Java’s green cover. The NGO decides to conduct workshops for residents, shops and establishment owners of the area as well as for those who represent hospitals, schools, hotels, et cetera., in the region. These interventions or activities will fall across various stages during the course of the project. 

For example, the first such intervention taken up by the NGO was to launch a campaign to reach out to the various parties. Representatives from residential societies, owners of establishments, others in the area would be briefed about the programme. Similarly, ‘green’ workshops will be conducted for ‘target’ groups at a later stage. 

You will need to refer to the chart to understand the flow of interventions all the way to the top (goal). 

Tip: You will need to monitor and assess the effectiveness of the initiative by identifying indicators for outcomes and preconditions. This exercise will help in gauging whether an outcome has occurred and how effective it has been. 

In a nutshell: Don’t forget to document your ToC in detail – outcomes, preconditions, assumptions and justifications, interventions, indicators. Evaluate and assess the ToC from time to time.

Learn more how to develop your ToC here

 

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